Research Design返回

The target population of this survey was defined as the principals of all local secondary schools excluding the international schools. No sampling was required.


This study was conducted by self-administered paper questionnaire, returned by the principals via mail or fax. The data collection period started from 22 May and ended on 14 June, 2012. A total of 105 questionnaires were received via fax and were considered valid. The response rate of this survey was 19.8%, with a standard error of sampling of no more than 4.4%, had it been a representative survey (Table 1).

Table 1. Contact information of the survey

Successful Cases

Distributed Questionnaires

Response rate*

Standard Error**





* Response rate is calculated as the number of successful cases divided by the number of distributed questionnaires.
** Calculated as if these are random sample surveys.