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2016 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2016) (Chinese only)
The HKU Public Opinion Programme is fully responsible for the 2016 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
 
Research Reports |   Onsite Surveys |   Online Surveys |   Head Countings |   Articles |   Press Releases |

         Research Reports
 
  2005 Observation Report for July 1 Mock Referendum (Date of activity: 1/7/2005)
This report was compiled by the Research Team on the Study of Referendums, with the assistance of the Public Opinion Programme. The Research Team on the Study of Referendums is set up on a voluntary basis, and Robert Ting-Yiu Chung, Director of the Public Opinion Programme, is one of the members, but the Research Team on the Study of Referendums is fully responsible for all the result. Please refer to the "Feature Page for Research on Referendums" for relevant information.
 
         Onsite Surveys
 
  Onsite Survey on July 1 Rally 2007 (conducted on 1/7/2007; released on 3/7/2007; on-line from 3/7/2007) (Chinese only)
This part tabulated the opinion submitted by people who have participated in the 2007 July 1 Rally. In the rally, we conducted face-to-face interviews with the people and have conducted 577 successful interviews in total. The content includes contact information, research method, demographic profile of respondents, frequency tables, full questionnaire and commentary prepared by Dr Robert Chung.
 
  Onsite Survey on July 1 Rally 2006 (conducted on 1/7/2006; released on 1/7/2006; on-line from 1/7/2006) (Chinese only)
This part tabulated the opinion submitted by people who have participated in the 2006 July 1 Rally. In the rally, we conducted face-to-face interviews with the people and have conducted 629 successful interviews in total. The content includes contact information, research method, demographic profile of respondents, frequency tables, full questionnaire and commentary prepared by Dr Robert Chung.
 
  Onsite Survey on July 1 Rally 2005 (conducted on 1/7/2005; released on 1/7/2005; on-line from 1/7/2005) (Chinese only)
This part tabulated the opinion submitted by people who have participated in the 2005 July 1 Rally. In the rally, we conducted face-to-face interviews with the people and have conducted 1,154 successful interviews in total. The content includes contact information, research method, demographic profile of respondents, frequency tables, full questionnaire and commentary prepared by Professor Joseph Chan and Dr Robert Chung.
 
  Onsite Survey on July 1 Rally 2004 (conducted on 1/7/2004; released on 28/6/2005; on-line from 28/6/2005) (Chinese only)
This part tabulated the opinion submitted by people who have participated in the 2004 July 1 Rally. In the rally, we conducted face-to-face interviews with the people and have conducted 610 successful interviews in total. The content includes contact information, research method, demographic profile of respondents, frequency tables, full questionnaire and commentary prepared by Professor Joseph Chan and Dr Robert Chung.
 
  Onsite Survey on July 1 Rally 2003 (conducted on 1/7/2003; released on 28/6/2005; on-line from 28/6/2005) (Chinese only)
This part tabulated the opinion submitted by people who have participated in the 2003 July 1 Rally. In the rally, we conducted face-to-face interviews with the people and have conducted 1,154 successful interviews in total. The content includes contact information, research method, demographic profile of respondents, frequency tables and full questionnaire.
 
         Online Surveys
 
  Results of 2007 July 1 Rally Online Survey (Survey date: 1-4/7/2007; Release date: 12/7/2006; Online date: 12/7/2007)
This part tabulated the opinions submitted by people who have participated in the 2007 July 1 Rally and passed the identity check in our online survey. In the rally, we distributed 5,550 leaflets with passwords in the gathering venue and invited participants of the July 1 Rally to go to a specific website to fill in an online questionnaire. Three days later, we received 362 questionnaires with valid passwords, and amongst them. For the full text of the questionnaire, please refer to "Opinion Platform: 2007 July 1 Rally" in this website.
 
  Results of 2006 July 1 Rally Online Survey (Survey date: 1-4/7/2006; Release date: 18/7/2006; Online date: 18/7/2006)
This part tabulated the opinions submitted by people who have participated in the 2006 July 1 Rally and passed the identity check in our online survey. In the rally, we distributed 4,616 leaflets with passwords in the gathering venue and invited participants of the July 1 Rally to go to a specific website to fill in an online questionnaire. Three days later, we received 257 questionnaires with valid passwords, and amongst them, 68 respondents submitted their opinions in the open space at the end of the questionnaire. For the full text of the questionnaire and respondents' open-ended opinions, please refer to "Opinion Platform: 2006 July 1 Rally" in this website.
 
  Results of 2005 July 1 Rally Online Survey (Survey date: 1-4/7/2005; Release date: 4/8/2005; Online date: 4/8/2005)
This part tabulated the opinions submitted by people who have participated in the 2005 July 1 Rally and passed the identity check in our online survey. In the rally, we distributed 12,853 leaflets with passwords in the gathering venue and invited participants of the July 1 Rally to go to a specific website to fill in an online questionnaire. Three days later, we received 411 questionnaires with valid passwords, and amongst them, 125 respondents submitted their opinions in the open space at the end of the questionnaire. For the full text of the questionnaire and respondents' open-ended opinions, please refer to "Opinion Platform: 2005 July 1 Rally" in this website.
 
  Results of 2004 July 1 Rally Online Survey (Survey date: 1-4/7/2004; Release date: 18/1/2005; Online date: 18/1/2005)
This part tabulated the opinions submitted by people who have participated in the 2004 July 1 Rally and passed the identity check in our online survey. In the rally, we distributed 12,270 leaflets with passwords in the gathering venue and invited participants of the July 1 Rally to go to a specific website to fill in an online questionnaire. Three days later, we received 736 questionnaires with valid passwords, and amongst them, 79 respondents submitted their opinions in the open space at the end of the questionnaire. For the full text of the questionnaire and respondents' open-ended opinions, please refer to "Opinion Platform: 2004 July 1 Rally" in this website.
 
  Results of 2003 July 1 Rally Online Survey (Survey date: 1-11/7/2003; Release date: 28/6/2005; Online date: 28/6/2005)
This part tabulated the opinions submitted by people who have participated in the 2003 July 1 Rally and passed the identity check in our online survey. In the rally, we distributed 19,350 leaflets with passwords in the gathering venue and invited participants of the July 1 Rally to go to a specific website to fill in an online questionnaire. Ten days later, we received 2,431 questionnaires with valid passwords, and amongst them, 679 respondents submitted their opinions in the open space at the end of the questionnaire. For the full text of the questionnaire and respondents' open-ended opinions, please refer to "Opinion Platform: 2003 July 1 Rally" in this website.
 
         Head Countings
 
  2016 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2016) (Chinese only)
The HKU Public Opinion Programme is fully responsible for the 2016 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2015 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2015) (Chinese only)
The HKU Public Opinion Programme is fully responsible for the 2015 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2014 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2014) (Chinese only)
The HKU Public Opinion Programme is fully responsible for the 2014 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2013 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2013) (Chinese only)
The HKU Public Opinion Programme is fully responsible for the 2013 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2012 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2012) (Chinese only)
The HKU Public Opinion Programme is fully responsible for the 2012 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2011 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2011) (Chinese only)
The HKU Public Opinion Programme is fully responsible for the 2011 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2010 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2010) (Chinese only)
The HKU Public Opinion Programme is fully responsible for the 2010 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2009 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2009) (Chinese only)
The HKU Public Opinion Programme is fully responsible for the 2009 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2008 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2008) (Chinese only)
The HKU Public Opinion Programme is fully responsible for the 2008 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2007 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2007) (Chinese only)
The HKU Student Research Team is fully responsible for the 2007 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project, with the assistance of the Public Opinion Programme. Robert Ting-Yiu Chung, the Director of the Public Opinion Programme, is the advisor of the Team. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2006 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2006) (Chinese only)
The HKU Student Research Team is fully responsible for the 2006 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project, with the assistance of the Public Opinion Programme. Robert Ting-Yiu Chung, the Director of the Public Opinion Programme, is the advisor of the Team. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2005 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project (1/7/2005) (Chinese only)
The HKU Student Research Team is fully responsible for the 2005 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project, with the assistance of the Public Opinion Programme. Robert Ting-Yiu Chung, the Director of the Public Opinion Programme, is the advisor of the Team. Results of the headcounting project are released via links of this website.
 
  2004 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project: Record of Counting Methods (Documents from the Research Team on Headcounts in Rallies and Gatherings) (16/7/2004) (Chinese only)
This document is released by the Research Team on Headcounts in Rallies and Gatherings, recording the procedure and result of the headcounting exercises in 2004 July 1 Rally. The Research Team on Headcounts in Rallies and Gatherings is set up on a voluntary basis, and Robert Ting-Yiu Chung, the Director of the Public Opinion Programme, is one of the members. The headcounting operation is assisted by the Public Opinion Programme, but the Research Team on Headcounts in Rallies and Gatherings is fully responsible for the headcounting result.
 
  2003 July 1 Rally Headcounting Project: Record of Counting Methods
This document is released by the Research Team on the Compendium of Submissions on Article 23 of the Basic Law, recording the procedure and result of the headcounting exercises in 2003 July 1 Rally. The Research Team on the Compendium of Submissions on Article 23 of the Basic Law is set up on a voluntary basis, and Robert Ting-Yiu Chung, the Director of the Public Opinion Programme, is one of the members. The headcounting operation is assisted by the Public Opinion Programme, but the Research Team on the Compendium of Submissions on Article 23 of the Basic Law is fully responsible for the headcounting result.
 
  Combined charts of the July 1 Rally over the years
 
  Combined charts of Mass gatherings and Rallies over the years
 
  Combined charts of Mass gatherings and Rallies over the years (More than 20000 people attended)
 
         Articles
 
   "The Scientific Spirit of the July 1 Rally Headcount " by Robert Chung and Edward Chit-fai Tai (Members of Public Opinion Programme, HKU) (Chinese only) (9/7/2012)
This article discusses the controversies surrounding the method of POP's July 1 Rally headcount in 2012. The Chinese version of this article was published in Media Digest (Volume 7 in 2012)
 
   "The Constants and Variables of Rally from July 1st Rally On-site Survey" Robert Ting-Yiu Chung (Director of Public Opinion Programme, HKU), Clement York-Kee So (Assistant Professor at School of Journalism and Communication, the Chinese University of Hong Kong), Joseph Man Chan (Professor at School of Journalism and Communication, the Chinese University of Hong Kong), Lee Lap-fung (Assistant Professor of City University of Hong Kong Department of English (16/7/2009) (Chinese only)
The Chinese version of this article was published in Ming Pao on July 15 and 16, 2009, with titles 'The highest common factor of the voices of July 1st Rally' and 'Where does the new energy of July 1st Rally come from' respectively. Mainly through analyzing the results of the on-site survey of July 1st Rally in 2009, the article acknowledges the background and demands of participants, and compares with the characteristics of those found in the past July 1st rallies.
 
  "July 1 Rally Survey Result Comparison Article Series" Joseph Man Chan (Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication, the Chinese University of Hong Kong), Robert Ting-Yiu Chung (Director of Public Opinion Programme, the University of Hong Kong), Francis Lee (Assistant Professor at the Department of English and Communication, the City University of Hong Kong) (16/7/2005)
The article was published by MingPao in two parts from July 15 to 16, 2005, with respective titles of "No Focus in this Year's July 1 Rally?" and "Using a New Mode to Read July 1 Rally". The article mainly analyzed and compared the participants' profiles, demands and participating modes of the past three July 1 rallies by looking at the results of the on-site surveys. It also suggested that the government and democrats should adopt a positive attitude to embrace the challenges brought by the July 1 rallies.
 
  "Headcounts on June 4 and July 1" Ivan Yiu-Wing Poon and Thomson Chung-Sum Hui (Core Members of HKU Student Research Team) (12/7/2005)
The Hong Kong University Student Research Team has observed and head-counted this year's June Fourth Candlelight Vigil and July 1 Rally. By this article, two core members briefly described the counting methods applied, their results and limitations. The authors also put the accent on the utmost importance of transparency and scientific approach during the process. The Chinese version of this article was published by the Hong Kong Economic Journal on July 12 2005.
 
  "Propensity to Participate in July 1 Rally" Robert Ting-Yiu Chung (Director of Public Opinion Programme, the University of Hong Kong) (30/6/2005)
In this article, the author mainly discussed people's propensity to participate in the July 1 rallies over the years and analyzed the trend of turnouts in the rallies, using opinion figures. The author also briefly discussed the effect of these rallies on the political culture of Hong Kong. The Chinese version of the article was published by the Hong Kong Economic Journal on 30 June 2005.
 
  "June 4 and July 1 Surveys Article Series" Robert Ting-Yiu Chung (Director of Public Opinion Programme, the University of Hong Kong), Joseph Man Chan (Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication, the Chinese University of Hong Kong), Francis Lee (Assistant Professor at the Department of English and Communication, the City University of Hong Kong) (18/8/2004)
The article was published by MingPao in two parts, on August 17 and 18, 2004, with respective titles of "Room for Improvements in June Fourth Candlelight Vigil" and "Fighting for Democracy is the Common Aspiration in July 1 Rally". The article conducted a qualitative analysis on the aspirations of participants in the June Fourth Candlelight Vigil and the July 1 rally with the on-line survey results, and discussed the future trend of mass movement.
 
  "July 1 Rally Article Series" Joseph Man Chan (Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication, the Chinese University of Hong Kong), Robert Ting-Yiu Chung (Director of Public Opinion Programme, the University of Hong Kong), Francis Lee (Assistant Professor at the Department of English and Communication, the City University of Hong Kong) (20/7/2004)
The article was published by MingPao in three parts, from July 7 to 9, 2004, with respective titles of "Thorough Self-initiating Mobilization; Weaker Mass Media's Propaganda Effect", "No Blind Confrontation against the Central Government when Fighting for Democracy" and "Fighting for more Communication and No Easy Compromises". The article mainly compared the profiles of the participants of July 1 rallies in 2003 and 2004. It also discussed the messages brought by this year's July 1 rally, as well as participants' demands and their attitude towards the Central Government.
 
  "Head Counting in Mass Gatherings and Rallies Article Series" Robert Ting-Yiu Chung (Director of Public Opinion Programme, the University of Hong Kong) (16/7/2004)
The article was published by MingPao in two parts, on July 15 and 16, 2004, with respective titles of "500,000 People in 2003's July 1 Rally as a Reliable Figure; 50,000 People at most in This Year's January 1 Rally" and "180,000 to 210,000 People in This Year's July 1 Rally". The article mainly discussed the author's head counting methods and limitations faced in last year's July 1 rally, this year's January 1 rally, June Fourth Candlelight Vigil and July 1 rally.
 
  "Methods of Head Counting Article Series" Jennifer So-Kuen Chan (Lecturer, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, the University of Hong Kong), Leong Kwan Li (Associate Professor, Department of Applied Mathematics, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University) (16/7/2004)
The article was published by Hong Kong Economic Journal in two parts, on July 15 and 16, 2004, with respective titles of "Static Counting Methods in Mass Gatherings and Rallies" and "Moving-mass Counting Methods in July 1 Rally". The article mainly examined the procedures and difficulties in various head counting methods through the June Fourth Candlelight Vigil and the July 1 rally.
 
  "Head Counting for July 1 Rally" Jennifer So-Kuen Chan (Lecturer, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, the University of Hong Kong), Leong Kwan Li (Associate Professor, Department of Applied Mathematics, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University) (16/7/2004)
The article described the method, result and limitations of the head counting exercise carried out by the authors in this year's July 1 rally, while at the same time discussed the limitations of different head counting methods. The article was published by Hong Kong Economic Times on July 16, 2004.
 
  "Looking at Democratic Movement's Public Support from Population Figures" Jennifer So-Kuen Chan (Lecturer, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, the University of Hong Kong) (5/7/2004)
This article mainly analyzed the democratic development in Hong Kong from the perspective of population structure, with figures obtained in the 2001 Population Census and the on-site survey conducted in this year's July 1 rally. The Chinese version of the article was published by the Hong Kong Economic Journal on 5 July 2004.
 
  "Behind the Propensity to Participate in July 1 Rally" Robert Ting-Yiu Chung (Director of Public Opinion Programme, the University of Hong Kong) (1/7/2004)
This article mainly examined the in-depth meaning of the July 1 rally and used the figures from the public opinion surveys conducted by the POP Team in recent months to analyze the people's propensity to participate in July 1 rally. The Chinese version of the article was published on the Hong Kong Economic Journal on 1 July 2004.
 
  "Public Opinion and the Two Rallies" Joseph Man Chan (Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication, the Chinese University of Hong Kong), Robert Ting-Yiu Chung (Director of Public Opinion Programme, the University of Hong Kong), Francis Lee (Assistant Professor at the Department of English and Communication, the City University of Hong Kong) (29/4/2004)

(i) Full article (Chinese Only)
This article made a comparative analysis on the profiles of participants in the July 1 and New Year Rallies. Backgrounds and communication behaviours of the "active participants" and "possible participants" were also compared. The Chinese version was published by Hong Kong Economic Journal in three parts, between April 21 and 23, 2004, with respective titles of "Comparing the Mobilization Patterns of Two Large Rallies", "Comparing Core and New Participants of Mass Rallies" and "Political Communication Behaviour of Rally Participants".

(ii) Abstract
This abstract facilitates readers' understanding of the full article, which is only available in Chinese.
 
  "A Revelation of July 1: Internet Mobilization Gives New Life to Democracy" Robert Ting-Yiu Chung (Director of Public Opinion Programme, the University of Hong Kong), Joseph Man Chan (Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication, the Chinese University of Hong Kong) (25/7/2003)
The article discussed the findings of the online "July 1 Demonstration Survey", pointed out the power of internet in mobilizing the mass, and analyzed the political efficacy of computer network. The Chinese version was published by Hong Kong Economic Journal in two parts, on July 24 and 25, 2003.
 
  "How To Calculate the Number of Participants in July 1 Protest" Clement York-Kee So (Associate Professor, School of Journalism and Communication, the Chinese University of Hong Kong), Jennifer So-Kuen Chan (Lecturer, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, the University of Hong Kong) (17/7/2003)
The article discussed the method for calculating the number of participants joining the "July 1 Demonstration", the actual difficulties encountered, and the projection figures. The Chinese version was published in the July edition of Media Digest.
 
  "Who can Mobilize 500,000 People to Rally? July 1 Demonstration and Political Communication in Hong Kong" Joseph Man Chan (Professor School of Journalism and Communication, The Chinese University of Hong Kong), Robert Ting-Yiu Chung (Director of Public Opinion Programme, the University of Hong Kong) (16/7/2003)
The article discussed the findings of an onsite survey conducted during the "July 1 Demonstration", pointed out the various kinds of mobilizations, and analyzed the paradigm change in Hong Kong's political communication. The Chinese version was published by Hong Kong Economic Journal in two parts, on July 15 and 16, 2003.
 
  "The March on July 1 Targets at Article 23 and CH Tung" Joseph Man Chan (Professor School of Journalism and Communication, The Chinese University of Hong Kong), Robert Ting-Yiu Chung (Director of Public Opinion Programme, the University of Hong Kong) (15/7/2003)
The article discussed the on-site survey findings of the "July 1 Demonstration", pointed out the various demands of the people who marched, and analyzed their socio-demographic characteristics. An abridged version in Chinese was published by MingPao on July 7, 2003.
 
  "July 1 Protest Affirms Opposition as Mainstream" Clement York-Kee So (Associate Professor, School of Journalism and Communication, the Chinese University of Hong Kong) (7/7/2003)
The article not only compared and analyzed the change of findings obtained in mid-June and early July regarding the public views on Article 23 legislation, it also discussed the proportions and socio-demographic characteristics of the people who were against continuing the legislative process on July 9. The article also analyzed the indication brought to Hong Kong by the "July 1st Demonstration".
 
         Press Releases
 
 HKU POP releases the headcount result of July 1 rally (Chinese Only) (1/7/2015)
 
  HKU POP releases HKSAR Anniversary survey and forecasts July 1 rally study arrangements (30/6/2015)
 
 HKU POP releases the headcount result of July 1 rally (Chinese Only) (1/7/2014)
 
  HKU POP releases HKSAR Anniversary survey and forecasts July 1 rally study arrangements (30/6/2014)
 
 HKU POP releases the headcount result of July 1 rally (1/7/2013)
 
  HKU POP releases HKSAR Anniversary survey and forecasts July 1 rally study arrangements (28/6/2013)
 
 HKU POP SITE will release the results of July 1 Rally headcount tomorrow evening (30/6/2010)
 
 HKU POP SITE will release the results of July 1 Rally headcount tomorrow evening (30/6/2009)
 
 HKU POP SITE releases forecast of July 1 headcount arrangements (30/6/2008)
 
 HKU POP SITE will tonight release the results of July 1 Rally headcount (1/7/2007)
 
 HKU POP SITE will release the results of July 1 Rally headcount July 1 evening (29/6/2007)
 
 HKU POP SITE will release July 1 rally headcount figures tonight and the results of an on-site survey tomorrow night (1/7/2006)
 
 HKU POP SITE will release July 1 rally headcount figures tomorrow and the results of an on-site survey in due course (30/6/2006)
 
 HKU POP SITE will tonight release the results of July 1 Rally headcount and an on-site survey (1/7/2005)
 
 HKU POP SITE will release the results of July 1 Rally headcount and an on-site survey tomorrow evening (30/6/2005)
 
  Onsite Survey on 2004 July 1 Rally: Homepage for One-day Use (Survey date: 1/7/2004; Release date: 1/7/2004; Online date: 1/7/2004)
 
 HKU POP SITE releases a column article today discussing the influence on public inclination towards Article 23 Legislation brought by the July 1st Demonstration (7/7/2003)
 

Research Reports |   Onsite Surveys |   Online Surveys |   Head Countings |   Articles |   Press Releases |